Over the past 150 years, the amount of carbon in the atmosphere has increased by 30%. Most scientists believe there is a direct relationship between increased levels of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere and rising global temperatures. One proposed method to reduce atmospheric carbon dioxide is to increase the global storage of carbon in soils. An added benefit to this solution is the potential for simultaneous enhancement in agricultural production. But what exactly is carbon sequestration, and what is its role in the global carbon cycle? How can we manage soils to capitalize on their ability to store carbon? And what are the costs and tradeoffs of these activities?